Scene of cow breeding and milking in ancient Egypt :
The domestication of animals in Egypt probably began as early as the Neolithic period. Under the Old Empire (from -2278 to -2260).
Four breeds of cattle are mainly known in ancient Egypt: the 'Negou' cattle, the 'Oundou' cattle, the hornless cattle and the humpbacked cattle.
The Negou cattle were the most common in ancient Egypt. They had long lyre or crescent-shaped horns, were tall on legs, thin and dry, with a short neck and a broad muzzle.
Well acclimatized to the climate of the Nile valley, these oxen grazed in large herds in the meadows of the delta.
During the hot summer months, the shepherds who herded these herds would take them to bathe in the deep waters of the Nile while keeping the crocodiles at bay with the help of magic spells.
Some subjects were fattened, and were then called "ioua" cattle. Beef ioua (or Bos Africanus of its scientific name) was not a working animal. It was intended exclusively for slaughter.